Articles on Nations:
Alcohol Prayer Initiative 2009, New York
CAN EUROPE BE SAVED?
CHURCH SUPPORTING POLITICS
CONGO-KINSHASA, A REMARKABLE CONFERENCE
CORPORATE IDENTITY OF AFRICA
CORPORATE IDENTITY OF AMSTERDAM
CORPORATE IDENTITY OF AUSTRALIA
CORPORATE IDENTITY OF BELGIUM
CORPORATE IDENTITY OF BRAZIL
CORPORATE IDENTITY OF FRANCE
CORPORATE IDENTITY OF HUNGARY
CORPORATE IDENTITY OF KOREA
CORPORATE IDENTITY OF SOUTH AFRICA
CORPORATE IDENTITY of SWEDEN
CORPORATE IDENTITY OF THE USA
COVERING AN AREA WITH PRAYER
Dialogue with Jacques Ellul
DURBAN II ≈ EVIAN III; NEW ANTISEMITISM
EUROPA – AFRIKA; Indrukwekkende Conferentie
EUROPA – AFRIKA; verzoeningsconferentie dvd
EUROPE - AFRICA; Berlin Congo I: Hist. Overview
EUROPE - AFRICA; Berlin Congo II: Report
EUROPE - AFRICA; Neo-Imperialism
Gebed voor de koning
GEBEDSBEDEKKING VAN EEN GEBIED
GOD'S COVENANT WITH ALL NATIONS
HOW TO DEFEND WHICH BORDERS OF ISRAEL?
ISRAEL’s RESPONSIBILITY 1
ISRAEL’s RESPONSIBILITY 2
ISRAEL’s RESPONSIBILITY 3
ISRAEL’s RESPONSIBILITY 4
Landbelofte of staatbelofte?
LOVING THE CITY GOD'S WAY
MIRACLES AT CITY SCALE
NATIVE AMERICANS, THREE DRAMA'S
NESTOR AFRICAN PRESIDENTS FORGIVES EUROPE
SLAVERY AND HEALING
SPIRITUAL ASPECTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
THE CITY AS BEAUTIFUL AS SHE COULD BE
THE CITY, AND WHY CITY PRAYER?
TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE PACIFIC
TWO CITIES DEDICATED TO KING JESUS
ÜBERSETZUNG THE NATIONS CALLED
VERZOENING MET NATIVE AMERICANS
WHY IS AFRICA SO POOR?
ZES LANDEN RIJNPROJECT
ZONDER VERZOENING GEEN TOEKOMST
Articles on Society:
A REVEALING UN-MEETING
A strategic assault on this generation of children
BOEK BOS ANTIDEMOCRATISCH?
CHILDREN OF THE WORLD TARGETED
COPENHAGEN – Five questions
COPENHAGEN - No bread from stones
Copenhagen, where do we go from here?
DE ANDERE AGENDA VAN DE DALAI LAMA
DE OLYMPISCHE SPELEN
EU: HUMANISME VERSUS “GOD”
EUROPA, WAAROM DIE NAAM?
EUROPE, WHAT'S IN THE NAME?
EVROPA - CO SKRÝVÁ TO JMÉNO?
EYPΩΠH, TI KPYBETAI ΣTO ONOMA
HER-MYTHOLOGISERING INTERNATIONALE POLITIEK?
Informed intercession for the UN
Jezus dienaar van Moeder Aarde?
KERK-STAAT VERHOUDING 1
KERK-STAAT VERHOUDING 2
KERK-STAAT VERHOUDING 3 (EU-Referendum)
KERK-STAAT VERHOUDING 4
Massa op Malieveld; nee toch?
MICRO FINANCING AND GRACE
MONDIALE SCHUDDINGEN I
MONDIALE SCHUDDINGEN II
Obama 1: Obama en het leven
Obama 2: Door Obama een les voor de kerk
PRAYING FOR THE G8
PULLING DOWN STRONGHOLDS
RE-MYTHOLOGISATION 0 OF INTERNATIONAL POLITICS?
RE-MYTHOLOGISATION 1: CHURCH-STATE/GOD-STATE
RE-MYTHOLOGISATION 2: GOD-STATE LINK IN OUR TIME
RE-MYTHOLOGISATION 3: EU AND UN “COVENANTS”
RE-MYTHOLOGISATION 4:GOD-STATE IN NEAR FUTURE
RE-MYTHOLOGISATION 5: WHAT ABOUT GOD’S MASTER PLAN
THINKING AND BELIEVING IN THE CHURCH
THINKING, BELIEVING AND SCIENCE
UN-DUURZAAMHEIDS TOP IN JOHANNESBURG
WHAT HAPPENS AT UN CONFERENCES?
WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
A NATION AS A TREE?
Belijden van de zonden van je land?
BIDDEN VOOR HOOGGEPLAATSTEN
BLOED SCHREEUWT VAN DE AARDE
GODEN DER VOLKEN
'GODS OF THE NATIONS'
HERSTEL VAN HET ALTAAR
HET KRUIS VAN JEZUS
JEZUS KOMT - drie voordrachten
NBV, COMMENTAAR OP ÉÉN ASPECT
OOK TOPCONFERENTIES IN DE BIJBEL GAAN OVER VOLKEN
THE CROSS OF JESUS
THE GLORY OF HIERARCHY
TITHING AND ETERNITY
EUROPE - AFRICA; Berlin Congo I: Hist. Overview
by: Pieter Bos
Historical Overview of the BERLIN - CONGO CONFERENCE in 1884-5 and its consequences.
(Part 1 of the Report on the Reconciliation Conference Africa – Europe, Ambilly, France 29-31 October 2002.)
History of the Berlin-Congo Conference
1884/85, the first so-called Berlin-Congo-Conference was convoked through Germany represented by Count Bismarck. At this conference the African continent was divided among the colonial powers of Europe and spheres of influence were arranged. Though it is widely believed the Conference averted a European war. However for Africa the results were injustice and exploitation of African nations by European nations in the short term, and bitterness, disunity and even occasions for wars and genocides have resulted down to this day.
From November 15, 1884 until February 26, 1885 an international conference on Africa was held in Berlin, pretentiously called the “Berlin-West Africa Conference”. Germany, with the support of France, initiated the conference with a clear diplomatic agenda: to resist the British & Portuguese from controlling the Congo Basin & thereby the whole Congo River system. The conference’s goal was to make an agreement so as to calm the many existing tensions between the colonial powers and to “divide and rule” Africa by cutting up the continent among the European colonialists, as one would cut up a cake.
14 nations participated at this first Congo-Conference: the main players in the region: Britain, Germany, France, Belgium, Spain, Portugal and Italy. Involved super powers: Russia, Turkey, Austria/Hungary. Further were invited and also responded by their presence: Netherlands, Denmark, Norway/Sweden, and also the USA, because King Leopold’s private Congo company was bases in that country.
The focus was the authority over the Congo River basin, the supposedly richest region of the continent. Congo was for a long time private company of king Leopold of Belgium. His representatives visited tribal chiefs with cheap gifts and a contract (which they could not read) in which the chiefs gave away “in their own free will” all the resources of their territory and all the help necessary to exploit these. These treacherous covenants were enforced by cruelties, like chopping off of the limbs of children of reluctant tribesmen. Under king Leopold about 10 million people died due to his policy of colonization and exploitation.
Not one African nation was represented at any time during the 3-month long conference.
David Livingston held that the mission of Europeans in Africa had four purposes: Commerce, Christianity,
Civilization, and Conquest.
These “four C’s of Livingston” set implicitly the spirit of the BC-conference.
T he key of the conference outcomes included:
1. The free use of the Congo River
2. The free use of the Niger River
3 King Leopold’s company was put under international law, and “Belgian Congo” as a nation was created, because Germany and the other powers wanted to prevent GB or France controlling the richest part of Africa.
Long Term Consequences:
Even though few Europeans know about the Berlin-Congo conference, many Africans are well aware of it.
Resulting from this conference, the African peoples were divided, new borders were established, injustice and colonial exploitation were widespread and without restraint. The resulting wounds can still be felt throughout Africa:
1. Peoples were merged and divided with no common culture; the nations formed were marriages of strange bed-fellows. Disruption of African political values
2. The mental universe of the peoples became dominated by another language and culture, i.e. that of the colonial power.
3. Politics – these were shaped by European interests; the national borders cut across tribes and the traditional political grouping within pre-colonial Africa. In 1963 the Organisation for African Unity agreed that to change the borders determined in 1885 would be too traumatic for Africa so left them in tact.
4. A loss of identity. Distrust in African national and regional and tribal identities.
Continent wide inferiority inside and outside.
5. Tribal warfare ensued. The European example of “divide and rule” is ruling still.
6. The European market has dictated the economy of Africa ever since. Selling out of African resources.
7. The infrastructure one sided oriented on export.
8. Post-colonially, nation states have not been able to pull together.
9. Poverty – the trade imbalance established by colonialism has been sustained.
10. This situation has created the climate for the current experience of Euro/US neo-colonialism both economically & politically. The Western world is still thinking about Africa as inferior.
11. Lack of love in Africa, wars, genocide, ethnic conflicts. Africans tend to remain in a victim role, which is easier than taking responsibility for their own sins AND hatred.
The sins the Europeans committed in Africa invited the spirits behinds them, such as superiority, greed, racism, enslaving. Cecil Rhodes, in 1890 the prime minister in South Africa and founder of “Rhodesia,” was in many ways a man in whom these forces came together. Of course these spirits came on top of the spirits that were already active on the continent, especially the many spirits of ancestor worship and witchcraft.
(For follow up, see Reconciliation Africa - Europe; Neo-Imperialism,
Reconciliation Africa - Europe; Berlin Congo II, a Glorious Report.)